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    DTPQDT02019019780.pdf

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, MERCED Multi-Domain Synchrony Within Vocal Development A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Cognitive and Information Sciences by Gina Marie Pretzer Committee in Charge Professor Teenie Matlock, chair Professor Eric A. Walle Professor Anne S. Warlaumont 2019 ProQuest Number All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages,these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. ProQuest Published by ProQuest LLC . Copyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code Microform Edition ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 - 1346 13886398 13886398 2019 Copyright Gina Marie Pretzer, 2019 All rights reserved iii The Dissertation of Gina Marie Pretzer is approved, and it is acceptable in quality and form for publication on microfilm and electronicall y Eric A. Walle, Ph.D., Committee Member Associate Professor of Psychological Sciences University of California, Merced ___________________________________________________ ___________________ Anne S. Warlaumont, Ph.D., Committee Member Associate Professor, Department of Communication University of California, Los Angeles ___________________________________________________ ___________________ Teenie Matlock, Ph.D., Committee Chair Professor of Cognitive and Information Sciences McClatch Chair in Communication University of California, Merced University of California, Merced 2019 iv This dissertation is dedicated to my family for the ir unfailing love and support throughout this great journey. I also dedicate this work to the many friends and c olleagues who have stood by with words of encouragement, deep conversations, and fun ny cat videos to keep my spirits high. This would not be possible without all of you. v Contents List of Tables . .ix List of Figures . . x Acknowledgments . . xi Curriculum Vitae . .xii Abstract . xvii Chapter 1 Introduction . .1 1.1 Infant Prelinguistic Vocal Development 1 1.2 Infant-Directed Speech . . .2 1.3 Learning Through Infant-Adult Interactions . .2 1.4 The Present Work . . .4 Chapter 2 Infant-Adult Vocal Interaction Dynamics Depend on I nfant Vocal Type, Child-Directedness of Adult Speech, and Timeframe . 6 2.1 Preface . . .6 2.2 Introduction . 6 2.2.1 Infant Vocal Development . .7 2.2.2 Contingent Infant-Adult Vocal Interactions .7 2.2.3 Infant-Directed Versus Other-Directed Speech .8 2.2.4 Studying Early Vocal Interactions in Daylong Home Recordings 10 2.2.5 Overview of the Present Study .11 2.3 Methods . 11 2.3.1 Participants 11 2.3.2 Recording Procedure .12 2.3.3 Selection of High Infant Volubility Samples 12 2.3.4 Utterance Identification and Classification by Human Listeners 12 2.3.5 Temporal Contingency Analyses 13 Figure 2.1 14 Figure 2.2 . .15 Figure 2.3 . .16 Figure 2.4 . .16 2.3.6 Acoustic Analyses 17 2.3.7 Code and Data Availability . 17 2.4 Results . . .17 2.4.1 Frequencies of Infant and Adult Vocalization Events 17 Table 2.1 . 18 vi 2.4.2 Infant Vocalizations Predict Subsequent Adult Vocalizations With Various Pause Durations . 18 Table 2.2 . .19 2.4.3 Adult Vocalizations Predict Subsequent Infant Vocalizations With Various Pause Durations . 20 Table 2.3 . .20 2.4.4 Acoustic Analyses of IDS and ODS .21 Table 2.4 . .21 2.5 Discussion . . .21 2.5.1 Infant Vocalizations Predict Subsequent Infan t-Directed Adult Vocalizations, and Vice Versa . 21 2.5.2 Differences Between Infant Vocalization Types 22 2.5.3 Other-Directed Adult Vocalizations are Negati vely Associated with Infant Vocalizations . 23 2.5.4 Acoustic Differences Between Infant-Directed and Other-Directed Adult Speech . 24 2.5.5 The Difficulty of Inferring Causality from Fi rst-Order Temporal Contingencies .25 2.5.6 Additional Future Directions .25 2.6 Conclusion . .27 Chapter 3 Locomotion, Language, and Interactions H ow adult responsivity to infant vocalizations promotes vocabulary developmen t in walking and crawling infants . . .28 3.1 Preface . 28 3.2 Introduction . . .29 3.2.1 Locomotor Development 29 3.2.2 Prelinguistic Development .29 3.2.3 Language and Locomotor Development 30 3.2.4 Overview of the Present Study .31 3.3 Methods . . .31 3.3.1 Participants . .31 3.3.2 Recording Procedure .32 3.3.3 Selection of High Infant Volubility Samples 32 3.3.4 Identification and Classification of Infant and Adult Utterances 33 3.3.5 Event Series Analyses 33 3.3.6 Code and Data Availability .34 3.4 Results . . .34 3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics 35 Table 3.1 . 35 Table 3.2 .35 3.4.2 Infant Vocalizations Predict Subsequent IDS a nd ODS 35 vii Table 3.3 . 36 3.4.3 IDS and ODS Predict Subsequent Infant Vocaliz ations 36 3.3.4 Infant and Adult Vocalization Frequencies for Walking and Crawling Infants 36 Table 3.4 . .37 3.4.5 Associations Between Infant and Adult Vocaliz ations and MCDI Scores in Walking and Crawling Infants .37 Table 3.5 . .38 Figure 3.1 .38 Table 3.6 . .39 3.4.6 Associations Between IDS and ODS and Vocabula ry in Walking and Crawling Infants 39 Table 3.7 . .40 3.5 Discussion . . .41 3.5.1 Bidirectional Associations Between Infant Vocalizat ion Type and Adult Utterance Direction 41 3.5.2 Walking and Crawling Infants Hear and Produce Different Vocalization Types at Varying Rates .42 3.5.3 Parent Responsivity is Related to Infant Voca lization Type, Vocabulary, and Locomotion .42 3.5.4 Limitations of the present study .43 3.5.5 Future Directions .44 3.6 Conclusion . .45 Chapter 4 Multi-Domain Synchrony in Speech and Lang uage Development 47 4.1 Preface . 47 4.2 Introduction . . .48 4.3 Methods . 48 4.3.1 Participants . .48 4.3.2 Recording Procedures . 49 4.4 Data Analyses . . .50 4.4.1 Part 1 – Coding Interactions .50 4.4.2 Part 2 – ASQ Exploration 51 4.5 Results . 51 4.5.1 Descriptive Statistics 51 4.5.2 Infant Vocalizations Predict Adult Responsivi ty at All Ages .51 Table 4.1 . 52 Table 4.2 . 52 Table 4.3 . 53 Table 4.4 . 53 4.5.3 Multi-Domain Development Predicts Vocabulary Size .54 4.6 Discussion . . .54 viii 4.6.1 Predicting Interactions . .54 4.6.2 Vocabulary Size is Predicted by Various Dev elopmental Domains 54 4.6.3 Limitations of the Present Study 55 4.6.4 Future Directions for Research . 55 4.7 Conclusion . .56 Chapter 5 Discussion . .58 5.1 Introducing a Human Coding Methodology to Obser ve Infant-Adult Interactions in the Wild . 58 5.2 Locomotor Status Relates to Interactions and V ocabulary Development 59 5.3 Multi-Domain Recruitment for Language Developm ent 59 5.4 Conclusion . . 60 References . .61 ix List of Tables Table 2.1 Event counts per vocalization type acros s all infants, given 1 s, 2 s, or 5 s pause duration . 18 Table 2.2 Infant Vocalizations Predicting Subseque nt IDS or ODS .19 Table 2.3 IDS or ODS Preceding Infant Vocalization s . 20 Table 2.4 Acoustic Differences for Infant-Directed vs. Other-Directed Adult Vocalizations . . 21 Table 3.1 Event Counts per Vocalization Type for C rawling and Walking Infants 35 Table 3.2 Frequency of Infant-Adult Vocal Sequence s for Crawling and Walking Infants . .35 Table 3.3 Infant Vocalizations Predicting Subseque nt IDS or ODS .36 Table 3.4 IDS or ODS Preceding Infant Vocalization s . 37 Table 3.5 Relations between Infant Vocalizations a nd Adult Vocalizations in Walking or Crawling Infants . 38 Table 3.6 Infant and Adult Vocalization Types Pred icting Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size . . .39 Table 3.7 Infant-Adult Vocal Sequences Predicting Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size . . .40 Table 4.1 Infant and Adult Vocalization Counts by Age . .52 Table 4.2 Proportions of Infant and Adult Vocaliza tions by Age .52 Table 4.3 Infant Vocalizations Predicting Subseque nt IDS or ODS .53 Table 4.4 Ages and Stages Questionnaire Scores Pre dict Vocabulary Size 53 x List of Figures Figure 2.1. A coded segment from a participant’s recording, wi th lags between vocalizations of greater than or equal to 2 s coded as a pause P . Lags between vocalizations that are less than 2 s are no t coded. /ʌ bʌ/ phonetic transcription of an infant canonical C vocalizati on. T an infant-directed adult vocalization. Speaker Code a tier indicating how event series were constructed. The event series for this example was T P C T T .14 Figure 2.2 . A coded segment from a participant’s recording, d epicting examples of infant laughs overlapping infant-directed vocalizations l abeled “T”. If the overlapping vocalization was coded as the first eve nt, the later onset overlapping vocalization was coded as the second ev ent. With P 1, 2, or 5 s, the event series would be T R T R .16 Figure 2.3 . A coded segment from a participant’s recording, d epicting an infant-directed vocalization labeled “T” overlapping a phonetica lly transcribed canonical infant vocalization where a first event begins befo re and extends beyond the other. If the overlapping vocalization was coded as the first event, the later onset overlapping vocalization was coded as the sec ond event. When P 1 s, the event series would be T C T C T P P N. With P 2 s, the event series would be T C T T P N. With P 5 s, the event seri es would be T C T T N . .16 Figure 2.4 . A coded segment from a participant’s recording, d epicting non-canonical infant vocalizations labeled “x” overlapping othe r-directed speech labeled “N”. If the overlapping vocalization was coded as the first event, the later onset overlapping vocalization was coded as the sec ond event. With P 1 s, the event series would be N X N X N. With P 2 an d 5 s, the event series would be N X X N . . .16 Figure 3.1. Left A boxplot showing the distribution of MCDI-R eceptive scores for crawling and walking infants. Right A boxplot sho wing the distribution of MCDI-Productive scores for crawling and walking inf ants. Locomotor status did not significantly predict Receptive or Producti ve vocabulary size .38 xi Acknowledgements First, I would like to thank my committee members – Teenie Matlock, Anne Warlaumont, and Eric Walle – for all their support and mentorship since I started my graduate studies at UC Merced. Thank you, Teenie, for supporting me through all th e comings and goings of the last couple years. I am so grateful that you were able and willing to bring me into your lab. I’m so glad we’ve had the opportunity to work together. Thank you, Anne, for launching me into the world of research and guiding me through the early years of my program. I am even more grateful for your continue d mentorship and support throughout the later years. I’ve done so much and met so many amazing people in our field because of you. Thank you, Eric, for your suggestions and i nsights for projects, papers, and presentations over the last five years. Although I was a student in another department, I always felt that I could stop by and ask for ideas or advice. I want to thank Jeff Yoshimi and Stephanie Shih for serving as members of previous committees throughout my studies. Thank yo u to Dan Hudock and Heather Ramsdell-Hudock for encouraging me to go into a res earch program. I never would have had the confidence to apply without you. A very special thanks to all the Research Assistant s who have spent countless hours coding vocalizations, processing audio files, organizing data, filling out spreadsheets, and going on pick up/drop off visits. Extra credit to Sara Mendoza and Jimel Mutrie for all your work to make things go sm oothly for all of us. A million thanks to my fellow grad students, Sara Schneider, who has kept the lab running in tip top shape this past year, and Lukas Lopez, who has done the b ulk of the training of the new research assistants. I also thank the friends and colleagues at school a nd at work for challenging me to think critically and reflectively. I’m a better sci entist and SLP because of you. So much love my to fellow speechies who inspire me on a dai ly basis. Thanks for talking and sharing ideas with me throughout this writing proce ss. My heartfelt gratitude goes out to my dear friends old and new and family who been by my side through all the ups and downs of th is journey. You know who you are, and you know how much I value your support and enco uragement. There are no words sufficient to express how deeply grateful I am to e ach and every one of you. This work was funded in part by the National Scienc e Foundation through grant numbers BCS-1529127 and SMA-1539129/1827744, by a J ames S. McDonnell Foundation Fellowship in Understanding Human Cognit ion, and by a Faculty Research Grant from the University of California, Merced Gra duate and Research Council. xii Curriculum Vitae Gina M. Pretzer, MS, CCC-SLP gpretzerucmerced.edu Education Doctor of Philosophy, Cognitive and Information Sciences, University of C alifornia, Merced; School of Social Sciences, Humanities 2014 -2019 Advisor, Dr. Anne Warlaumont 2014-2017 Dr. Teenie Matlock 2017-presen t Master of Science, Speech-Language Pathology, Idaho State University, School of Rehabilitation Submit meeting notes and read ings for inclusion on DARCLE website Fall 2017-Spring 2018 Reviewer for Many Paths to Language MPaL Conferen ce, Reviewed submissions for the 2017 MPaL Conference July 2017 Reviewer for Language in Infants and Toddlers Topic Area, Reviewed submissions for this content area for the 2016 ASHA Convention April 2016 SSHA Graduate Student Judge, Undergraduate Research Poster Competition; Judged undergraduate researchers’ posters February 2016 Cognitive and Information Sciences Graduate and Fac ulty Weekly Meeting, Co- organizer for weekly departmental meetings; Coordin ating student speaker schedules and distributing abstracts and materials prior to talks Spring 2016 NSSLHA , Planning and preparation for 2014 NSSLHA Workshop Fall 2013 – Spring 2014 Northwest Center for Fluency Disorders, Assisted with finding/securing grants for Intensive Stuttering Clinic; Assisting with creatio n of clinic manual for Intensive Stuttering Clinic Fall 2013 – Spring 2014 IMASH Convention , Session Moderator for “Forming Inter-Professional Collaborations to Treat Students Who Stutter” ; Volunteer at registration table, Denver, CO October 2013 FRIENDS of People Who Stutter Symposium, Assisted leading children’s session, Pocatello, ID April 2013 Capitol Hill Day, Presented information to members of Idaho state leg islature at NSSLHA information table, Boise, ID February 2013 xvii Abstract Language is inherently social; thus, language learn ing must be facilitated by social means. Infant-adult interactions are crucia l for lang

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