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DTPQDT02019019428.pdf

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY COLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES INTERNAL NARRATORS AND ROMAN FOUNDATION IN OVID’S FASTI By ANASTASIA BELINSKAYA A Disertation submited to the Department of Clasics in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2019     ProQuest Number     All rights reserved  INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.  In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.      ProQuest  Published by ProQuest LLC . Copyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author.   All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code Microform Edition ProQuest LLC.   ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 - 1346 13428356 13428356 2019 ii Anastasia Belinskaya defended this disertation on February 19, 2019. The members of the supervisory commite were Laurel Fulkerson Profesor Directing Disertation Silvia Valisa University Representative Tim Stover Commite Member Jesica H. Clark Commite Member The Graduate School has verified and approved the above-named commite members, and certifies that the disertation has been approved in acordance with university requirements. iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to everyone who has supported me throughout the writing proces and al the years of education which have led here. I am especialy grateful to Laurel Fulkerson, my advisor and disertation director, whose guidance and encouragement has kept me going and helped me to make progres both when al was going wel and when I was struggling. I would also like to thank Jesica Clark and Tim Stover for al their asistance, advice, and time invested throughout this proces. I am extremely grateful too to Silvia Valisa, who was kind enough to serve as the university representative on my commite, as wel as to John Miler and Nandini Pandey, who both read over a portion of this document and provided their very insightful comments. I owe thanks to al the faculty of Florida State University’s Department of Clasics, who have been incredibly supportive throughout my graduate career and whose asistance, insight, kind words, and donations of time have enabled me to learn, grow, and get where I am today. I am indebted also to my family and friends, who have always supported me. To my parents, grandparents, and my brothers thank you for al your love, patience, asistance, and encouragement during the time it has taken me to complete this project. And to al my friends thanks for keeping me grounded during the proces, lightening my mood when I needed it, and for al the fun times. I am extremely grateful to you al. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract .v INTRODUCTION .1 Narrators and Informants 8 Roman Space and Foundation in Ovid’s Fasti 12 Layout 15 CHAPTER ONE ANOTHER SIDE TO JANUS .18 Janus Introduced His Duality and Presence 20 Who is Janus The First Response 30 A Look at Crana .46 CHAPTER TWO JANUS AND THE NARRATOR 61 The Conversation Begins .63 Landscape of Gold The Janus Coin and Pre-Foundational Rome 80 Landscape of War Janus in “Romulean” Rome 89 The AgonaliaNarrator’s Landscape .98 CHAPTER THREE CARMENTIS, EVANDER, AND HERCULES .122 Exiles at Rome .125 Evander’s and Carmentis’ Rome .140 Enter Hercules 155 What Women Can Do 167 CHAPTER FOUR RETURNS AND REVISIONS 171 The Lupercalia .172 Evander and Hercules in April .186 Caliope’s Version .191 Through the Mouth of the Tiber 198 The Returns of Book 6 .205 The Matralia .213 CONCLUSION 234 References 240 Biographical Sketch .266 v ABSTRACT Due to the variety of its subjects, its calendar-based structure, and its tendency to escape the boundaries of genre Ovid’s Fasti can at times give the impresion of a disjointed and repetitive text. A key element of the poem, which at times sems to exacerbate this impresion, is the multiplicity of voices and characters that present its information and inhabit its landscapes. By analyzing the characterization of these internal narrators and the characters with whom they interact, both from their own perspective and as revealed by their actions, this project shows that the Fasti is not disjoined and repetitive but intricately interwoven and intent on showcasing the variant and multifocal nature of Roman legend and practice. One of the clearest points of divergence among the Fasti’s narrators is on a topic crucial to the poem as wel as its historical and political context Rome’s foundation. My disertation demonstrates the above through a thorough analysis of key foundational figures in the poem and their depictions of the evolution of Rome, particularly in reference to its landscape, from its pre- foundational state to the time of Augustus. My analysis follows the variant tempora times of Roman foundational legend and their characteristic landscapes as represented by Janus, the poet’s narratorial persona, Evander, Carmentis, and Hercules throughout the Fasti. I trace how each of them atempts to asert his or her own version of Rome and her past through a competition of voices within the text. I focus particularly on elements of violence, sacrifice, foreignnes, cyclical repetition, birth and destruction, and gendered power in Roman legend and foundation. I use several methodologies in my approach, appropriating some elements of narratology and gender studies while focusing particularly on frequently overlooked elements of the text, including representations of space, the senses, and interacting details of self- representation by internal narrators. Through an analysis of these five figures my study begins to demonstrate an as yet untried approach to an enigmatic text which contributes to its further understanding from both a literary and a political standpoint, especialy in the way that the Fasti’s multiplicity of Roman foundational variants stands opposed to the atempted early imperial consolidation of Roman legend. 1 INTRODUCTION Just over two thousand years ago, when Ovid began composing his Fasti, the calendar was receiving an extraordinary amount of atention in Rome. Caesar had recently thoroughly revised the Roman calendar, and Augustus added his own changes. 1 At the same time, tablets of Roman fasti were erected al over Italy, including the famous Fasti Praenestini sponsored and commented upon by Verrius Flacus, the tutor of Augustus’ grandsons. 2 To these productions Ovid added his calendar in elegiacs. Ovid’s effort is unique. While it follows the format of a Roman calendar, the Fasti is also a literary work, and it is an unfinished one. The Fasti only covers the months from January through June, with the remainder incomplete either acording to plan or due to constraints of circumstance or time. 3 Performing double-duty as calendar and work of literature, the Fasti covers a wide range of topics from Roman history to religious ritual to mythology and legend to astronomy and astrology to elements of Roman landscape and topography. Al this information is relayed by the poem’s central narrator, at times on his own, and at others through conversation or inspiration by other internal narrators, mortal and divine. The versatile and complex nature of the Fasti’s content and structure has at times led it to be dismised in the past as an inferior text 1 In 46 BCE Caesar replaced the 35-day year of the Republican calendar with the 365-day Julian year, suplemented by an intercalary day every four years. He re-aligned the Roman calendar with the solar year and inserted himself into it through comemoration of his victories, his birthday, and the month Iulus. M. Lepidus, who instituted Caesar’s calendar after his asasination, incorrectly aplied the intercalary day every three years instead of four. Thus, Augustus in 8 BCE began to withhold the intercalary day to make up for Lepidus’ mistake. During Augustus’ reign many more days were dedicated to celebrations of the members of the new imperial family, and the eighth month was renamed after Augustus. Se further Bmer 1957, 15-7, Weinstock 1971, 191-97, Pasco- Pranger 2006, 1-72, and Feeney 2007, 138-66. The calendar began to follow Caesar’s intended intercalation in 8 CE, the same year that Ovid was exiled from Rome. 2 On this topic in general se Feney 207, 167-212 and the Fasti Praenestini in Degrasi 1963, 107f.. 3 Although the extant poem is incomplete, Ovid elsewhere implies that the missing six boks were drafted at one point Tritia 2.549-56. Opinions have difered in the past over whether this statement is true and what may be the reason that they were not finished see the discussion in Newlands 195a, 3-5. The most common postulations are that Ovid was unable to finish the work before his death in 18 BCE, or that the circumstances of his exile made him unable or unwiling to continue working on a poem that is so closely tied to Rome and the details of the city’s physical and cultural past and present, or that Ovid was unwiling to put into verse the upcoming months dedicated to Caesar and Augustus. While the topic is fascinating, we wil almost certainly never answer this question. What is clear, however, is that the extant six books did undergo revision at least in parts see Fantham 2006 [1986] and Pasco-Pranger 2006, 23-5 and what has come down to us is polished as a whole, as seen especially in the intratextualities betwen the framing boks one and six for which see Barchiesi 1997a; Newlands 1995a, 124-45 and my chapters one and four below. 2 within Ovid’s corpus. 4 I aim to show that in fact Ovid’s elegiac calendar has a nuanced structure which is only enhanced by its multiplicity of narrators and that through its representations of Roman religious ritual, Roman legend, and Roman topographical elements it enters into a conversation with the religious, mythological, and physical innovations of its historical and political context under the Augustan Principate. The Augustan period was represented as a re-foundation of Rome. The princeps inserted himself into Rome’s foundational mythology by tying himself to legendary figures, primarily Aeneas and Romulus. 5 He also transformed the city physicaly through the construction and restoration of monuments, appropriation of space, and transformation of Roman topography RG 11-3 and 19-22. 6 Entering into conversation with these developments, within the Fasti Ovid presents himself as a founder of the calendarJuno cals him exactly that at the start of Book 6and a paralel to both Augustus and Romulus. 7 Proceding in this method of interpretation an obvious approach to understanding what Ovid does in the Fasti, how precisely he acts as a builder or a founder, is to look at the spaces he himself constructs in his own Romethe literary version of it that he builds through his words, both its history and its present. In a way, the Fasti is Ovid’s textual monument of Rome. 8 4 For example, Frnkel 1969, 148-8 in summation of his section on the Fasti said that it “could never be real poetry” and it is best “to read it as if it were a book for children.” Wilkinson 1955, 241-84 was of largely the same opinion. Both men especially took isue with the structure of the Fasti, following the days of the Roman calendar, deeming it awkward and unsuccessful. See also Otis 1970, 38 and Barsby 1978, 29. Wilkinson pg. 241 in introducing it calls it a “‘collective’ poem of disconected stories,” contrasted in particular with the Metamorphoses’ continuous nature, and then “a jumble of astronomy, history, legend, religion, superstition, scholarship, guesswork and antiquarian lore.” The word “jumble” implies a lack of order and structure, but this is not the case. Frcaut 1972, 271-300 is on the whole more positive, stil criticizing the abruptness of the Fasti’s flow compared to that of the Metamorphoses but choosing to accept the variety of its transitions as “les rgles du jeu.” The Fasti’s structure is not linearexcept in the most obvious sense of one day of the calendar following anotherbut it is not disconnected either. Feeney 2007, 169 ilustrates the structural diferences between the Metamorphoses and the Fasti with the terms “Time’s Arow” for the former versus “Time’s Cycle” for the latter. 5 This may be perceived in literature e.g. Verg. Aen. 1.278-91 and 8.714-23 and his building program e.g. the sumi viri of the Augustan Forum and the decorative program of the Ara Pacis. 6 In his study of Roman space and its relation to power and social status Fredrick 2002a, 252 finds the “subordination of Roman history to the Julian family in the Augustan Forum.” The same argument could be made for other significant spaces in Rome transformed by Augustus, like the Ara Pacis complex on the Campus Martius for which see Rehak 206. Elsner 196b emphasizes the role played by the Res Gestae inscription in textualizing this. He pg. 44 puts it another way “Literally, the Res Gestae inscribes Augustus through his buildings into the geography of Rome.” 7 For Ovid as founder in the Fasti see Miler 191; Hinds 192a and b; Boyle 203. 8 Furthermore, in being the only remaining source for so many of the legends, rites, festivals, events, and structures it describes, it has outlasted the physical places, objects, and practices within it, as Ovid claimed his work would in the sphragis to the Metamorphosis. Horace made the conection betwen monument and his own work more explicitly at Carm. 3.30.1, concluding his first three books of the Odes Exegi monumentum aere perenius I have erected a monument more lasting than bronze. 3 The Fasti, although it also at times elevates Augustus and his family above its larger Roman narrative, democratizes Roman history and legend through its structure. By offering numerous variants of Roman origins and etiologies behind contemporary practices, often tied to changing internal narrators, the Fasti avoids subordination and teleological reorganization of Rome and her history, which may be perceived in the Principate’s efforts to shape them. While the Augustan narrative is present, it is only one of many. Elsner 1996b in an analysis of Augustan use of art and monuments throughout the city of Rome to further his political aims focuses on the inscriptions, the texts, that acompanied, interpreted, and enhanced these physical works. Ovid’s poem both builds Rome and her monuments and at the same time interprets them for the reader. More acurately, the Fasti, with its multiple internal narrators and inclination toward variants, suggests multiple interpretationsleaving the reader to choose his/her own. 9 In her reconstruction of the urban environment of Augustan Rome Favro 1996, 24-41 and 252-280 highlights the transformative nature of his reign, by bookending

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