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自考英语二复习资料汇总.pdf

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自考英语二复习资料汇总.pdf

1 P19 重 点 单 词 扩 充 讲 解 1. organizational a 组 织 上 的 由 此 我 们 可 以 联 想 到 organize v 组 织 ; organization n 组 织 ; organizer n 组 织 者 请 看 下 列 习 题 , 选 择 该 组 词 里 恰 当 的 词 填 空 1. Last week, our school __ organized _____ a spring outing. 2. The task calls for the highest _ organizational _ skill. 3. China has joined World Trade _organization _________. 4. He is the ____ organizer ______ of the speech contest. Answers organized, organizational, Organization, organizer 2. objective n 目 标 ; a 客 观 的 ,反 义 词 subjective 主 观 的 3. predict v 预 言 、 预 示 ; 由 此 我 们 可 以 联 想 到 prediction n 预 言 ; predictable a 可 预 测 的 ; predictor n 预 言 家 4. simplify v 简 化 由 此 我 们 可 以 联 想 到 simple a 简 单 的 ; simply ad 简 单 地 ,仅 仅 地 ; simplification n 简 化 ; simplified a 被 简 2 化 的 。 Exercises for the above words 1. The machine is simple _____ in operation but complex in structure. 2. Shakespeare ’ s Romeo and Juliet in the original is beyond our capacity while __ simplified_ _ edition is quite easy. 3. There is no point in arguing about it, becau se it is __simply_ ____ a question of procedure. 4. The _ simplification _____ of working process freed the workers fro heavy labor. Answers simple; simplified; simply; simplification 5. tendency n 趋 势 、倾 向 ; tend v 倾 向 于 , tend to do sth e.g. old people have the tendency of getting fatter. Or old people tend to get fatter. 6. managerial a 经 理 的 、 经 营 上 的 ; 由 此 我 们 可 以 联 想 到 manage v 管 理 、 经 营 ; management n; manager n 经 营 者 ,管 理 者 ; manageable a 可 管 理 的 、 可 经 营 的 。 7. argue v 争 辩 、 争 论 , 常 用 固 定 搭 配 argu with sb about/over sth 由 于 某 事 而 同 某 人 争 论 ; argue sb into doing sth 说 服 某 人 做 某 事 ; argue sb out of doing sth 说 服 某 人 不 3 要 做 某 事 。 e.g. 1. The young couple always argue with each other over their child ” s education. 2. I argued him out of going on such a dangerous journey. 旅 行 8. define v 给 下 定 义 ; definition n 定 义 9. profitability n 赚 钱 , 获 利 由 此 我 们 可 以 联 想 到 profit n 利 润 ; profitable a 有 利 可 图 的 , 有 好 处 的 ; profitless a 没 有 利 润 的 。 1. He has made a _profit ____ from running a small restaurant. 2. The deal was __ profitable ____ to all of us. 3. They valued profitability _______ differently, which led to disagreement as to the correctness of decision. Answer profit, profitable; profitability. 10. correctness n 正 确 性 ; 字 根 correct a 正 确 的 ; v 纠 正 , correction n 纠 正 ; incorrect a 不 正 确 的 。 11. unintended a 非 计 划 中 的 , 由 此 我 们 可 以 联 想 到 intend v 打 算 ,计 划 ; intention n ; intended a 计 划 中 的 4 重 点 单 词 、 词 组 详 讲 1. interview n/v 采 访 、 面 试 ; interviewer n 采 访 者 ; interviewee n 被 采 访 者 e.g. 1. Whos the most famous person youve ever interviewed on TV 2. In a TV interview last night, she denied she had any intention of resigning. 2. criticism n 批 评 ,评 论 ; criticize v 批 评 ; critical a 批 评 的 、 挑 剔 的 、 关 键 的 ; critic n 评 论 家 , 请 填 填 看 。 1 He is a literary ___ critic ___. 2 We are at a _____ critical __time in our history. 3 He cant take __ criticism _ ____. 4 The boy was __ criticized ____ by his father for being late for school. Answers critic, critical, criticism, criticized 3. indifference n 冷 漠 、 漠 不 关 心 ; indifferent a 冷 漠 的 , 反 义 词 enthusiastic 热 情 的 cf different a 不 同 的 , 名 词 difference; 反 义 词 same. 4. inefficiency n 无 效 , 由 此 联 想 得 到 efficient a 高 效 率 的 ; efficiency n inefficient a 低 效 率 的 5. conservative a 保 守 的 、保 存 的 ; conserve v 保 存 ; 5 蜜 饯 conservation n 6. apply to sb for sth 向 某 人 申 请 某 物 e.g. The student applied to the embassy for a visa. 7. take the trouble to do sth 不 辞 劳 苦 、 费 力 地 做 某 事 e.g. If you took the trouble to listen to what I was saying, youd know what I was talking about. 8. put oneself in somebodys place 设 身 处 地 If you put yourself in your mothers place, you will understand why she is so worried about you. 9. in hand 手 头 上 有 , 进 行 中 Ive got enough money in hand to buy a new car. 10. turn down 调 小 , 降 低 , 拒 绝 Turn down the TV, for the baby is sleeping. He turned down the job because the pay isnt good enough. Learn new words and phrases 1. astronomer n 天 文 学 家 ; astronomy n 天 文 学 2.explode v 爆 炸 ,由 此 联 想 explosive a 爆 炸 性 的 /n 炸 药 ; explosion n 爆 炸 1. When the bomb__ exploded ____, many people were seriously wounded. 6 2. The unexpected _explosion_ ______ frightened the little girl. 3. It might be possible to convert _ explosive ____ energy into heat. Answers exploded, explosion, explosive 3. density n 密 度 ; 联 想 产 生 dense a 密 度 大 的 , 反 义 词 sparse; densely ad 高 密 度 地 ; densely-populated 人 口 稠 密 的 ; sparsely-populated 人 口 稀 疏 的 1. The _ dense ___ fog kept the travelers from finding the correct direction. 2. The business area of the city is _densely_ ___ populated. 3. This liquid has a much greater _density ___ than water. Answers dense, densely, density 4. shrink v 收 缩 、 退 缩 、 缩 水 1. As a result of careless washing, the jacket has shrunk to a childs size. 2.The girl shrinks at the sight of blood. 5. measurement n 衡 量 、 测 量 ; 由 此 联 想 measure n 措 施 /v 衡 量 、 测 量 ; measurable a 可 衡 量 的 , 可 测 量 的 7 1. We must take _measure ____ to protect our environment. 2. We have come within __measurable ____ distance of success. 3. Clocks give us a __ measurement ____ of time. 4. There the rainfall is _ _measured ____ not in inches but in feet. Answers measures, measurable, measurement, measured 6.implication n 含 义 、 暗 示 ; imply v 暗 示 7. basis n 基 础 、 根 据 , 由 此 可 以 联 想 得 到 base n 底 部 ; v 以 为 底 , 为 根 据 ; basic a 基 础 的 , 根 本 的 ; basically ad 根 本 上 来 说 , 1. If you want to improve your English, you must have a solid _ basis _____. 2. The furniture of out dorm is really _basic ____ two beds, two chairs and tables. 3. The charges are false for they are not _basically _____ on proven facts. 4. Since no better plan can be worked out, we have to adopt the _ based_ __ workable one. Answers basis, basic, based, basically 8 8. observatory n 天 文 台 ; 由 此 可 以 联 想 得 到 observe v 观 察 ; observation n 观 察 ; observer n 观 察 家 9. convincing a 有 说 服 力 的 , 使 人 信 服 的 ; convince v 使 人 信 服 ; convinced a 感 到 有 说 服 力 的 , 常 见 搭 配 convince sb of sth; convince sb that 1. He gave us a convincing speech. 2. He convinced me of his sincerity. 10. operate v 运 转 、操 作 、动 手 术 ; operation n 手 术 , 操 作 ; operator 操 作 者 11. research into 对 进 行 研 究 She is researching into possible cures for AIDS. 12. swallow up 吞 没 、 耗 尽 Many small businesses have been swallowed up by large companies. 13. apply to sb/sth 适 用 于 某 人 /某 事 , 请 对 比 apply to sb for sth 向 某 人 申 请 某 事 ; apply A to B 将 A 应 用 于 B 1. You should apply what you have learned to your work. 2. I applied to him for a new job. 3. The study method doesnt apply to everyone 9 Learn new words and phrases 1. revolve v 旋 转 , 常 见 搭 配 关 系 为 revolve around sb/sth 围 绕 转 。 She spends all of her time revolving around her family. The earth revolves around the sun. 2. solar a 太 阳 的 , 日 光 的 solar energy 太 阳 能 ; solar system 太 阳 系 ; solar month 阳 历 月 3. concerned a 有 关 的 、 担 心 的 Her job is something concerned with computer. He is concerned about the result of the exam. 4. colored a 有 色 的 , 对 比 ; colorful a 丰 富 多 彩 的 I like orange-colored coat. Everybody likes colorful life. 5. religion n 宗 教 , religious a 虔 诚 的 ; 请 对 比 region n 地 区 ; regional a 地 区 的 6. circumstance n 情 况 、 境 遇 ; Under no circumstances can we waste time. 7. a great many a number of many 很 多 , 修 饰 复 数 名 词 。 而 a great deal of u.n A great many students are absent today. I have wasted a great deal of time. 10 8. above all 首 先 、 首 要 After the war, he longed above all to see his wife and family. 9. as a rule 通 常 、 一 般 而 言 As a rule, I only watch sports news. Learn new words and phrases 1. weaken v 削 弱 、 减 弱 , 字 根 weak a 虚 弱 的 构 词 形 式 adj/n en 或 en adj/n v Shorten, enlarge, enable, enrich, loosen, tighten etc. 2. nationwide a 全 国 范 围 的 , 通 过 该 词 我 们 可 以 得 到 worldwide 全 世 界 范 围 的 , region wide, etc. 3.legal a 合 法 的 ,反 义 词 illegal, 不 合 法 的 ; legalize v 使 合 法 化 。 The Netherlands became the first country to legalize euthanasia. 4. ensure v 确 保 、 担 保 , 常 见 用 法 如 下 1. The police can ensure the witness from danger. 2. We can ensure that the work will be done in the right way. 5. oppose v 反 对 、 对 抗 ; 名 词 opposition , 形 容 词 opposed 1. What he said was totally opposed to the facts. 11 2. Many people oppose building a new highway because of the great cost. 6. tradition n 传 统 , 由 此 可 以 联 想 到 traditional a; traditionally ad; 反 义 词 为 modern 1. _____ Chinese medicine is believed to be effective for many diseases. 2. Its important to keep up the fine ____ of plain living and hard work. 3. Christmas is ____ a holiday for a family to get together. Answers Traditional, tradition, traditionally 7. consideration n 考 虑 、体 谅 、照 顾 ,由 此 可 以 联 想 到 Consider v 考 虑 ; considerate a 体 谅 的 , be considerate of; considerable a 相 当 多 的 。 请 练 习 一 下 1. Losing 30 pounds changed her appearance _____. 2. It is very ____ of you to send me a birthday card. 3. The matter is receiving the serious ____ of the manager. 4. He left behind him a ____ amount of debt. Answers considerably, considerate, consideration, considerable 8. disabled a 残 疾 的 , 伤 残 的 , 由 此 可 以 联 想 到 12 able a 有 能 力 的 ; be able to do sth; unable a 没 有 能 力 的 ; enable v 使 人 能 够 enable sb to do sth; ability n 能 力 ; disable v 使 人 残 疾 1. As long as they are physically ____, they tend to live on their own. 2. The _____ to be clearly heard is extremely important for any speaker. 3. Id like to go to the cinema, but Im _____ to. 4. Education should ____ every student to devel op morally, intellectually and physically. 5. A car accident ____ him from playing football. 6. Special care should be given to the ______. Answers able, ability, unable, enable, disabledv, disableda 9. prohibition n 禁 止 、 禁 令 , prohibit v prohibit sb from doing sth; 10. sensitive a 敏 感 的 , be sensitive to sb/sth; 同 根 词 sensible a 明 智 的 , be sensible of sth 1. I am sensitive to your criticism. 2. Its sensible of you to make such a decision. Learn new words and phrases 13 1. statistics n 统 计 数 字 ; keep statistics; statistical a 统 计 的 ; statistician n 统 计 员 2. diplomat n 外 交 家 , 由 此 联 想 得 到 diplomacy n 外 交 , 外 交 手 腕 ; diplomatic a 外 交 的 ; 请 对 比 diploma 文 凭 3. exploit v 开 发 、 开 采 、 剥 削 , 由 此 联 想 得 到 exploitable a 可 开 发 的 ; exploited a 被 开 发 的 ; exploitation n 1. The workers in capitalist countries are cruelly exploited by the capitalists. 2. There are laws against the exploitation of child labor. 3. His highly exploitable talent cant create wealth f or society if he doesnt make great efforts. 4. abuse v/n 滥 用 , 如 abuse ones authority 滥 用 职 权 5. execute v 实 行 、 执 行 , 将 处 死 , 由 此 联 想 得 到 executive a 执 行 的 ,决 策 权 的 , n 行 政 领 导 CEOchief executive officer 首 席 执 行 官 ; execution n 执 行 、 实 行 。 1. You shouldnt be slow in the _____ of your duties. 2. The soldiers ____ the captains orders as soon as they received the call. 3. After the discussion of the ____ committee, the labor law was put into force in may, 1994. 14 Answers execution, executed, executive 6. guilt n 有 罪 、内 疚 ; guilty a 内 疚 的 ; guiltless a 无 罪 的 7. employee n 雇 员 ; 由 此 联 想 得 到 employ v 雇 佣 ; employment n 雇 佣 ; employed a 被 雇 的 , 有 工 作 的 ; unemployed a 失 业 的 ; employer n 雇 主 1. The police ______ force to break up the crowd. 2. Many ____ were thrown out of job as a result. 3. Business activities were greatly reduced and almost 60 of the workers were out of ______. 4. During the Depression, many workers were ______. Answers employed, employees, employment, unemployed 8. immigrant a 移 民 的 , n 移 民 ; immigrate v ; immigration n 1. During the gold rush, California attracted many immigrants from other states. 2. Many Italians immigrated to the United States and Canada. 3. In the 1980s, a law against the immigration of Asian peoples was put into practice. 9. deport v 驱 逐 出 境 , 由 此 联 想 得 到 port 港 口 ; import 进 口 ; export 出 口 ; airport 空 港 ; 15 passport 通 行 证 , 护 照 10. be deserving of 值 得 、 应 得 His efforts are certainly deserving of praise. New words from text B 11. deny v 否 认 , 拒 绝 接 受 , 后 接 doing. He denied lying to us. 12. ineffective a 无 效 的 , 反 义 词 effective. 13. watch over 看 护 、 看 管 。 They use specially trained dogs to watch over their sheep at night. 14. in unison 一 致 地 , 协 调 地 They sang Happy Birthday to me in unison. 15. pay back 偿 还 , 报 复 , 回 报 1. If you lend me 50 Yuan, I will pay you back on Friday. 2. Ill pay him back for the trick he played on me. Key words and phrases 1. musician n 音 乐 家 ,与 其 同 根 的 常 见 词 汇 music n 音 乐 ; musical a 音 乐 的 , musically adv 从 音 乐 上 来 说 的 。 Please do the exercises 1. The ____ of the Beatles became very successful and 16 famous during the 1960s. 2. Although he was born in America, he could play many Chinese ____ instruments. 3. Folk music, the blues and rocknroll remained _____ and culturally distinct in the 1960s. 4. Bob Dylan, a famous folk ____ in America, was best known for his anti-war song. Answers music, musical, musically, musician 2. consciousness n 意 识 、 知 觉 , 与 其 同 根 的 常 见 词 汇 conscious a 有 知 觉 的 、 有 意 识 的 aware , 反 义 词 unconscious unaware; 副 词 consciously, unconsciously 。 常 用 搭 配 be aware/unaware of sth; be aware/unaware that. 1. I was ____ that I had made a mistake. 2. ____ did not return to the injured man for two hours. 3. When a person immigrates to a new country, he should ______ adapt himself to the new environment. Answers conscious, consciousness, consciously 3. originate v 发 源 、 发 生 ,与 其 同 根 的 常 见 词 汇 origin n 起 源 、 发 源 ; original a 原 始 的 , 新 颖 的 ; n 原 著 、 原 稿 , originality n 创 新 、 创 造 力 1. The use of steam originated many new reforms. 2. I wonder the origins of life on the earth. 17 3. The Indians were the original inhabitants of North America. 4. The quarrel originated in conflicts between the two families. 5. Her design is of great originality. 4. imitator n 模 仿 者 ,联 想 imitate v 模 仿 ; imitation n 模 仿 5. limitless a 无 限 制 的 , 与 其 同 根 的 常 见 词 汇 limit n 极 限 , v 限 定 ; limited ; a 有 限 的 , limitation n 局 限 1. His knowledge about insurance is rather ______. 2. His energy seems to have no ____. 3. A wise man knows his ____. 4. In front of the ____ ocean, he found he was rather insignificant. Answers limited, limits, limitation, limitless. 6. penetrating a 穿 透 的 , 贯 穿 的 , 动 词 penetrate; 名 词 penetration 7. participant n 参 加 者 ,参 与 者 , 与 其 同 根 的 常 见 词 汇 participate v, participation n 固 定 搭 配 participate in sth. 8. take over 接 管 、 接 任 、 When he retired, his son took over business from him. 9. take on 担 任 , 雇 用 18 1. He has taken on a new job. 2. The employer takes on twenty more workers. Text B 10. composer n 作 曲 家 , 动 词 compose , 名 词 composition 11. inspire v 鼓 舞 , 产 生 灵 感 , inspiration n 灵 感 Genius is 1 of inspiration and 99 of hard work. 12. invariably ad 不 变 地 , 同 根 词 variable a 可 变 的 ; variety n 各 种 各 样

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