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    大学英语专业修辞学课件083158.doc

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    大学英语专业修辞学课件083158.doc

    Rhetoric The definition of rhetoric The development of rhetoric The purposes of rhetorical study The plan for this subject The definition of rhetoric 1. a. The art or study of using language effectively and persuasively. b. A treatise or book discussing this art. 2. Skill in using language effectively and persuasively 3. Verbal communication; discourse 修辞一词大体可以分为广狭两义 甲狭义修,作修饰解; 辞,作文辞解,修辞就是修饰文辞;乙广义 修,作调整解, 辞,作语辞解,修辞就是调整语辞. Rhetoric from Greek ῥήτωρ, rhtr, orator, teacher is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. In this sense, there is a divide between classical rhetoric with the aforementioned definition and contemporary practices of rhetoric. The development of rhetoric The Evolvement of Rhetoric Historically, classical rhetoric has its inceptionbeginning in a school of Pre-Socratic philosophers known as Sophists.In Ancient Greece, the sophists were a group of teachers of philosophy and rhetoric . It is later taught as one of the three original liberal arts or trivium the other members are dialectic and grammar in Western culture. In ancient and medieval times, grammar concerned itself with correct, accurate, pleasing, and effective language use through the study and criticism of literary models, dialectic concerned itself with the testing and invention of new knowledge through a process of question and answer, and rhetoric concerned itself with persuasion in public and political settings such as assemblies and courts of law. Grammar is the law of language, considered as language; rhetoric is the art of language, considered as thought.Grammar tells what is correct; rhetoric tells what is effective and pleasing. As such, rhetoric is said to flourish in open and democratic societies with rights of free speech, free assembly, and political enfranchisement electionfor some portion of the population. Contemporary studies of rhetoric have a more diverse range of practices and meanings than was the case in ancient times. The concept of rhetoric has thus shifted widely during its 2500-year history. Rhetoricians have recently argued that the classical understanding of rhetoric is limited because persuasion depends on communication, which in turn depends on meaning. Thus the scope of rhetoric is understood to include much more than simply public--legal and political--discourse. So while rhetoric has traditionally been thought of being involved in such arenas as politics, law, public relations, lobbying, marketing and advertising, the study of rhetoric has recently entered into diverse fields such as humanities, religion, social sciences, law, science, journalism, history, literature and even cartography and architecture. Every aspect of human life and thought that depends on the articulation and communication of meaning can be said to involve elements of the rhetorical. In the last ten years, many scholars have investigated exactly how rhetoric works within a particular field. The Purposes of Rhetoric Study Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. And the art of persuasion. In its long and vigorous history rhetoric has enjoyed many definitions, accommodated differing purposes, and varied widely in what it included. And yet, for most of its history it has maintained its fundamental character as a discipline for training students 1to perceive how language is at work orally and in writing, and 2to become proficient in applying the resources of language in their own speaking and writing. The Application of Rhetoric in Life 1. In songs 2. In advertising 1. Ask for MORE. 2. The Unique Spirit of Canada. 3. Trust us. Over 5000 years of experience. 3. In daily conversation ●You are such a dish. 你是个绝色美人 ●I‘ve been dying to meet you. 我非常非常想见到你 ●I’m now giving you a last chance, either shape up or ship out. ●A small boy swallowed some coins and was taken to a hospital. When his grandmother telephoned to ask how he was a nurse said No change yet. ●A prisoners favorite punctuation mark is the period. It marks the end of his sentence. be at rest , be asleep in the Arms of God, answer the final call, depart to God, be out of pain, breathe one’s last, pay one’s last debt, settle one’s account, be no more, throw up the cards, etc. 汉语中有“老了,没了,逝世,病故,作古,辞世,去世,不在了,与世长辞,上西天,升天,驾返瑶池,心脏停止跳动,去见马克思”等。 4. In public speech I HAVE A DREAM Obama’s inaugural address 5. In literature In literature Seek not proud riches, but such as thou mayest get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave contentedly. 不要寻求令人称羡的财富,应当追求这样的境界对财富正当地获取,清醒地使用,愉快地施舍并能知足地放弃。(Bacon’s Of Riches) In Proverb 1. Life is a comedy to him who thinks and a tragedy to him who feels. 对明哲善思的人来说,人生是喜剧;对多情善感的人来说,人生是悲剧。 2. Spend not where you may save; spare not where you must spend. 可以节省时,不要浪费;必须消费时,不要吝啬。 The Arrangement of The Class Lexical Devices Syntactic Devices Figures of Speech Chapter One Lexical Devices Lexical Devices Introduction In this chapter, we will deal with lexical options, or the way writers choose their words to express their ideas clearly and effectively, in the appropriate context and situation. When we say “The pen is mighter than the sword ”, we really imply that words have power. A large vocabulary alone, however, does not give one words with power. It is one’s stock of vocabulary plus the knowledge of how to use words effectively and appropriately in the right place and to the right person that gives one the freedom and ability to influence with words. Short Words and Long Words Short words monosyllabic words of Anglo-Saxon origin. Long words polysyllabic words of Latin, French and Greek origin. Advice Prefer the short one to the long one, or not use a long one where a short one will do. Short Words Pope He did not object to using short words if they fitted the sense. “Words are like leaves; and where they most abound, much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found.” Essay on Criticism Hemingway He also knew how to use short words to great effect, setting them off with a sprinkling of longer ones, as the following extracts from The Snows of Kilimanjaro show 1. “The cot the man lay on was in the wide shade of a mimosa tree and as he looked out past the shade onto the glare of the plain there were three of the big birds squatted obscenely, while in the sky a dozen more sailed, making quick-moving shadows as they passed.” 2. “All right. Now he would not care for death. One thing he had always dreaded was the pain. He could stand pain as well as any man, until it went on too long, and wore him out, but here he had something that had hurt frightfully and just when he had felt it breaking him, the pain had stopped.” 3. Winston Churchill “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, sweat and tears.” spoken as he took over the leadership of the British anti-Fascist struggle in WWⅡ. 4. Franklin Roosevelt New Deal 5. Watergate,Zipper-gate 艳照门, 垃圾门,间谍门 7. Man for the field and woman for the hearth; Man for the sword and for the needle she. Man with the head and woman with the heart; Man to command and woman to obey. Alfred Tennyson Long Words However, it must be admitted that there are many events and situations in life which require fuller descriptions than monosyllables can provide. Example An Author’s Account of Himself by Washington Irving “ I visited various parts of my own country; and had I been merely a lover of fine scenery, I should have felt little desire to seek elsewhere its gratification, for on no country have the charms of nature been more prodigally lavished. Her mighty lakes, like oceans of liquid silver; her mountains with their bright aerial tint; her valleys, teeming with wild fertility; her tremendous cataracts, thundering in their solitudes; her boundless plains, waving with spontaneous verdure green growing plant ;her broad deep rivers, rolling in solemn silence to the ocean.” 广阔的湖泊如银波闪耀的大海; 崇山峻岭铺上空灵爽朗的色彩; 深邃的峡谷,繁茂的草木; 激荡的瀑布在寂静的荒原中轰鸣而下; 无边的草原连绵起伏,蓊蓊郁郁; 深厚宽阔的河流, 浩浩荡荡, 无声无息地奔流入海。 her trackless forests, where vegetation puts forth all its magnificence人迹罕至的森林,处处显露着豪爽的景观; her skies, kindling with the magic of summer clouds and glorious sunshine夏季的天空, 云朵变幻莫测, 阳光灿烂, no, never need an American look beyond his own country for the sublime and beautiful of natural scenery. Summary It would be hard, indeed, for an adult writer to write all in monosyllables or in polysyllables; a judicious mixture of the two is the usual practice. The advice to avoid long words, really, is aimed not at long words themselves but at those who “prefer long words to the short,” not for stylistic reasons, but for pretentious ones. Choose words according to your purposes, the writing style, etc., so as to make your expression more effective. Common Words or Learned Words Introduction In the history of English language, the question of whether English, the vernacular of the ordinary people was suitable for learned and elegant discourse was settled finally only as late as the 15th century. Before that Latin was generally acknowledged and accepted as the language of learning and scholarly discussion, and was a compulsory subject in schools and universities. The choice between common words and learned words was therefore originally a choice between vernacular English and Latin words. Today learned words still mainly refer to Latin words, but common words no longer refer purely to English words of Anglo-Saxon origin. The cosmopolitan vocabulary of English words contains thousands of words borrowed from other-than-Latin languages, especially French, and many of these are just as popular as common English words. Examples 1. French Latin agree concur prove verify surrender capitulate 2. Anglo-Saxon French Latin fire flame conflagration holy sacred consecrated eat dine ingest rise mount ascend Dickens’s David Copperfield Micawber “ My advice is, never do tomorrow what you can do today. Procrastination is the thief of life. Collar him” “Under the temporary pressure of pecuniary liabilities, contracted with a view to their immediate liquidation, but remaining unliquidated through a combination of circumstances, I have been under the necessity of assuming a garb from which my natural instincts recoils I allude to my spectacles and possessing myself of a cognomen, to which I have no legitimate pretensions”. Apart from his round-about way of expression, we can pick out the following learned words pecuniary liabilities debts liquidation payment unliquidated unpaid assume a garb take on a disguise allude to refer to spectacles glasses possess myself of give myself cognomen name, surname He could have made himself much clearer if he had simply said that he had to disguise himself and take a false name, as he is in debt, and hiding from his creditors. 5. 邓颖超致宋美龄的信1988年5月 庐山初识, 匆匆五十年矣. 山城之聚, 金陵之晤, 犹历历如昨. 别后音讯阔绝四十余年, 诚属憾事. 幸友谊犹存, 两心相通. 每遇客从远方来, 道及夫人 起居, 更引起怀旧之情. 近闻夫人健康如常, 颇感欣慰. 令姐孙夫人生前,极为思念夫人. 每每言及夫人爱国情切,必将致大力于中国之统一. 孙夫人手足情深,亟盼生前能与夫人一晤; 曾亲笔致函夫人,然未能如愿,终成憾事. Two score and ten years have elapsed since our acquaintance at Mt. Lushan. Our gathering in Chongqing the Mountain City and our meeting in Nanjing the Stone City are still fresh in my mind as if they were occurrences only of yesterday. Much to our regret, we had been out of correspondence for forty odd years. Yet it is a comfort to us that we still retain friendship and mutual understanding. Every time a friend comes from afar and mentions your daily life, I can not refrain from recalling our old associations. It is a supreme comfort to me when I am informed that you are as healthy as ever. Your honorable sister Madam Soong missed you intensely during her lifetime. She, on many occasions reiterated your ardent patriotism and utter devotion to the reunification of China. Madam Soong always cherished a sisterly affection for you and retained a strong aspiration to have a reunion with you, for which she wrote a letter. Yet she failed to fulfill her wish, which is a matter for regret. 6.The Nightmare Life Without Fuel ⑴ One way out for the suburbanites is to form associations that assign turns to the procurement and distribution of food. ⑵ Lukewarm sponge baths will do, and if the air is not always fragrant in the human vicinity, the automobile fumes are gone. 7. What Life Means to Me Jack London In short, as I accepted the rising of the sun, I accepted that up above me was all that was fine and noble and gracious, all that gave decency and dignity to life, all that made life worth living and that remunerated one for his travail and misery. Summary As non-native learners of the English language, we often learn new words as they come, and fine-sounding words of many syllables often impress us their “profundity”. We like to “try out” these words in our writing, and ignore their appropriateness. The choice of one’s diction is, of course, determined by many factors. We do not usually talk about common everyday things or events in learned language. Neither can we avoid using learned words in scholarly, academic or legal discussions. The rule is to suit one’s diction to the occasion, and not to mix things up. Formal, Informal or Colloquial Words People communicate in different social settings, and the language they use varies with such settings. A formal occasion demands the use of formal diction, and an informal one the use of informal or colloquial diction, as the list below shows Examples Formal Informal Colloquial deception trick rip-off depart leave split, scoot insane mad a screw loose residence house digs commence start kick off retire go to bed hit the sack be sentenced to death ∕get an electric chair Phrase Many phrasal and prepositional verbs are characteristic of informal styles. ▲ take up with She has taken up with an unemployed actor. take up with → to become friendly with ★ come off When is the wedding coming off The film doesn’t come off. He always comes off badly in fights. a succeed b get on

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